The brightness of the flash is equivalent to the brightness of a hydrogen bomb explosion.

Most comets move in their orbits on the periphery of the solar system. The attraction of Jupiter can turn the orbits of some of them into very elongated ellipses, moving through which comets fall into the planetary system. They carry a substance that has survived in the “space refrigerator” since their formation billions of years ago. On the planets where melting, crystallization, and other physicochemical processes took place during this time, the written lab reports online free original composition and structure of matter changed greatly.

Modern data on the age and chemical composition of rocks on different bodies of the solar system are fully consistent with Schmidt’s hypothesis developed in the works of other scientists.

Computations made with the help of computers and taking into account the presence of a magnetic field and a number of other factors allow us to explain the origin of the planetary system from the gas-dust cloud that surrounded the young Sun about 5 billion years ago. However, some aspects of this long complex process continue to be studied and refined.

08/14/2011

Recent studies of the planet Mars. Abstract

Temperature. Atmosphere. Water. Ultraviolet radiation. Interesting observations

The most studied planet on which searches are conducted now – Mars, but not all scientists agree that on it there can be any forms of life, some consider Mars uninhabited. With this in mind, we will dwell on this planet in more detail. Arguments against life on Mars are convincing and well known, here are some.

Temperature

The average temperature is almost -550C (on Earth + 150C). the temperature of the whole planet can drop to -800C before dawn. In the middle of the Martian summer near the equator, the temperature was + 300C, but it is possible that in some areas the surface never heats up to 00C.

Atmosphere

As the flights of the Mariners showed, the total pressure is in the region of 3 – 7 mb (1000 mb on Earth). At this pressure, the water will evaporate quickly at low temperatures. The atmosphere contains a small amount of nitrogen and argon, but the main mass is carbon dioxide, which should promote photosynthesis; but even less in the Martian atmosphere of oxygen. True, many plants can live without it, but for most terrestrial it is necessary.

Water

Observing the polar caps, astronomers concluded that they consist of water. It was believed that they may consist of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice). Clouds of various types, apparently consisting of ice crystals, have been observed in the atmosphere more than once (in general, the formation of clouds on Mars is a rarity.

Spectroscopic water has recently been detected, but the humidity there should be very low. This may indicate wetting the soil with moisture, although this is very rare. The movement of liquid water on the planet is not visible, although the movement of water from pole to pole does occur (as the southern polar cap melts, the northern pole increases).

Ultraviolet radiation

Virtually all of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation penetrates the rarefied atmosphere to the planet’s surface, which has a detrimental effect on all living things (at least on Earth). The level of cosmic radiation is higher than on Earth, but by most estimates it is not life threatening.

However, the climate of Mars, the atmosphere is remotely similar to Earth’s. This planet is free from contamination by substances of terrestrial origin. Therefore, the detection of life on it is most likely.

Interesting observations

Despite all these arguments, a number of observations speak in favor of life on Mars so convincingly that it is impossible not to mention them. Here are some of them.

Areas of the Martian surface, which scientists call seas, show all the signs of life: during the Martian winter, they almost fade or disappear, and with the onset of spring, the polar caps begin to recede, and then the “seas” immediately begin to darken; this darkening moves to the equator, while the polar cap retreats to the pole. It is difficult to come up with another explanation for this phenomenon, except that the darkening is caused by moisture, which arose during the melting of the polar cap.

The gradual advance of the eclipse from the edge of the polar cap to the equator occurs at a constant rate, the same annually. On average, the front of the eclipse moves to the equator at a speed of 35 km / day. In itself, this is incredible, because the wind speed on the surface of Mars (the movement of yellow dust clouds) reaches 48 – 200 km / h and it is a typical form of giant cyclones. All this looks like an anomaly, considering that the darkening of the soil is due to the transfer of moisture from the polar caps by atmospheric currents. In any case, the physical theories put forward so far to explain this phenomenon have been rejected.

Sometimes the Martian “seas” are covered with a layer of yellow dust, but after a few days they appear again. If they consist of Martian organisms, these organisms must either germinate through the dust or “shake” it off. The striking “density” of Martian “seas” compared to the surrounding so-called “deserts”. If the “seas” are so well photographed through a red filter, then it turns out that they consist of organisms that cover the soil in a continuous layer (similar to the observation of our deserts from an airplane, such that individual plants can not be distinguished).

In the Martian “seas” and “deserts” changes that occur over several years are sometimes rapid. Thus, in 1953 there was a dark area the size of France (Laokon node). It appeared where in 1948 there was a desert. If such an invasion of the “desert” was made by Martian plants, then they probably do not just exist. This observation is so striking that one can think of the Martian mind, which won back part of the “desert” with the help of agricultural technology.

Images taken by the Mariner show that craters are most densely located in areas called “seas” by astronomers. One way or another, it is likely that life could have originated at the bottom of the craters and then moved to the heights between them. In very good visibility, Martian “seas” do break down into many small details, but we have no reason to believe that life is now limited to the bottom of Martian craters, because the “seas” are too large for such an explanation.

Not so long ago, a hypothesis was put forward (IS Shklovsky) that the satellites of Mars may be artificial. They move in an almost circular, equatorial orbit, and in this sense they are different from the natural satellites of any other planet in the solar system. They are located at a close distance from Mars and are very small in size (about 16 and 8 kilometers in diameter). Apparently, their reflectivity is greater than that of the Moon. Acceleration in the motion of one of the satellites occurs in such a way that there is reason to assume that the satellites represent an empty sphere.

Very bright flashes of light are sometimes observed on the surface of Mars. Sometimes they last for 5 minutes, followed by an expanding white cloud. Some scholars have the impression that since 1938 – the first known case – such an event has been repeated 10 to 12 times. The brightness of the flash is equivalent to the brightness of a hydrogen bomb explosion.

Such a bright bluish-white light can hardly be volcanic, and the collapse of a fallen meteorite could not last that long. But at the same time, it is unlikely to be a thermonuclear explosion.

Channels. These formations on Mars have long been the subject of controversy as a possible proof of intelligent life. There must be an explanation for this closed network of lines that becomes visible under favorable conditions in our atmosphere and on the surface of Mars.

The first feature is that it is a closed network, in which only not all lines simply break off in the “deserts” without connecting to anything else.

The second is that the grid lines intersect in dark spots called oases. There is nothing like it on the moon. And this network is not like a line or a crack between craters (meteorites) on the Earth’s surface. But the cities at the bottom of the craters will probably be connected by a network of communications, including an underground irrigation system, along which there are “farms” (this may mean the width of the canals – up to 30 – 50 kilometers).

Now we can say that the gray lines observed on Mars, unusually regular geometric shape – the result of complex and insufficiently studied optical illusion, which occurs when observing the planet, as well as when photographing in weak or telescopes with poor image quality. In images obtained from space stations, the grid of “channels” on Mars is absent, but some quasilinear natural formations exist. But among them the large ones do not have a fairly regular shape, and the small ones could not be seen from the Earth under any circumstances.

So, we have a complex network of channels, seasonal changes in color, satellites, bright flashes of light, followed by white clouds. The simplest explanation for this is that there is life on Mars, at least there could be. Based on the above and given the latest data, we can assume that there may be a mind. This possibility is large enough to justify any effort to reach Mars and explore its surface.

The eternal question “Is there life on Mars?” it is no longer relevant – it is on the red planet. There live microbes, even from Earth, able to survive even in extraterrestrial conditions. Most likely, the microorganisms got to Mars along with spacecraft. Most microbes die in space, but not all.

That life could once have been on Mars is also a scientifically proven fact. However, these were the simplest organisms, and ancient Mars resembled the Earth at a time when life was born in its oceans. This discovery by NASA was the most important in the nearly forty-five-year history of the largely failed exploration of Mars: of the 30 Martian missions, only 10 were more successful than the opposite.… And the rest of the earthlings often lost touch forever. They were the ones who could bring earth microbes to the red planet.

In recent years, several spacecraft have been sent to Mars, however, only in January, through the rovers Spirit and Opportunity, scientists were able to, so to speak, touch the planet.

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